Portugal Treaties in Africa: Treaty of Chinfuma in Cabinda, Angola, 29 Sept. 1883

Map of Cabinda

Here is another treaty which led to the Treaty of Simulambuco between Portugal and the people of Cabinda, namely the Treaty of Chinfuma. This one was signed on the hill of Chinfuma, at Lândana, on 29 September 1883, between Guilherme Augusto de Brito Capelo and the local Princes.  The original in Portuguese can be found here: Angola, Cabinda, Tratado de Chinfuma. The river Chiloango referred to in the treaty can be seen on the attached map, as well as the city of Cacongo. Again, the website, Cabinda.net has a lot of these treaties.


On the 29th day of the month of September, in the year of Our Lord 1883, on the hill of Chinfuma, at Lândana, on the western coast of Africa, were present on one side, for the Portuguese Government, the Lieutenant-Captain of the Navy, Guilherme Augusto de Brito Capelo, commanding the corvette Rainha de Portugal, and on the other side, for the people inhabiting both banks of the River Kacongo, the Princes and other Notables, now Chiefs and Governors of said people and tribes, who by all present were recognized as the true and identical parties, together with the Portuguese and foreign merchants owning commercial houses at Landana, Chiloango, and on the banks of said river, who volunteered to be present at this meeting as witnesses to all that may be enacted in the premises; being also present Robert F. Hammick, Commander of the English gun-boat Flirt, and the agent of the house Hatton and Cookson, R. E. Dennet; the above mentioned Commander (of the Portuguese corvette) declared that as several Chiefs had expressed the wish of demanding the protection of Portugal, under whose sovereignty they wanted to remain, as being the nation with whom they maintained the most intercourse commercially, as well as in customs and language, ever since Europeans have trod African soil south of the Equator, he, the Commander, now came fully empowered by the Government of His Majesty the King of Portugal to frame a Treaty, which, after being ratified and signed by both Contracting Parties, should establish the future intercourse between Portugal and the countries governed by the subscribing Chiefs. And the Princes and other Notables having formally declared that they wanted to make good, with their signatures, a document by which the Protectorate and sovereignty of Portugal should be clearly authenticated over all the territory lying between the River Massabe (Luiza Loango on the English maps) and the Molembo, 11 Articles were discussed and adopted in a Treaty which, after having been read and duly explained both in Portuguese as well as in the language of the country, was signed by all parties with the sign of a cross, not knowing how to write. And in order that the measures adopted in this solemn meeting might in future be duly authenticated, this statement was made and signed by all parties and attached to the Treaty, which was copied and duly certified and sealed with the seal used on all official documents of the corvette Rainha de Portugal, and copies given to the chief Princes, Tali-e-Tali, Prince Regent of the Kingdom of Kacongo; Mancoche, King of Encoche Luango; Antonio Thiaba da Costa, Regent of the Kingdom of Cinchôcho, representing the Queen of Samano; Mangoal, Prince Regent of Mambuco Manipolo; Antonio Thiaba da Costa, Governor of Massabe, representative of the Chiefs of that place; who also received the Portuguese flag to be hoisted at their Settlements and on the lands that may be ceded to the Portuguese Government, to be kept and defended as the symbol representing the sovereignty and Protectorate of Portugal over the lands governed by them.

Heights of Chinfuma, September 29, 1883.


Commander of the corvette Rainha de Portugal.

Angola_Cabinda_Guilherme Augusto de Brito Capello
Guilherme Brito Capello in O Occidente Nº 738 de 30 de Junho de 1899

Their marks




x      MAMBUCO.



1st Lieutenant in the Navy.


2nd Lieutenant in the Navy.

ACHILLE DE ALMEIDA NAVARRO, Naval Doctor of the 1st Class.


Merchant in Landana.


PEDRO BERGNO, Marine Guard.


ANTONIO NUÑES SERRA E MOURA, Officer of Fazenda in the Navy.


Angola_Royal court of N'Gangue M'voumbe Niambi in Loango ca 1668
Royal court of N’Gangue M’voumbe Niambi in Loango ca 1668

Guilherme Augusto do Brito Capello, Lieutenant-Captain of the Navy, Knight Commander of the Order of Aviz, and Knight of various Orders, Commander of the corvette Rainha do Portugal, commissioned by the Government of His Majesty the King of Portugal, has concluded with the Princes Tali-e-Tali, Regent of the Kingdom of Kacongo; Mancoche, King of Encoche Luango; Antonio Thiaba da Costa, Regent of the Kingdom of Chinchôcho, Representative of the Queen Samano; and Mangoal, Regent of Mambuco, and their successors; as well as the other Chiefs of the hind lying between the Rivers Massabe and Molembe, on the Westem Coast of Africa, the following Treaty:—

Art. I. The Princes and other Chiefs of the country, and their successors, do voluntarily acknowledge the sovereignty of Portugal, and place under the Protectorate of that Government all the lands governed by them.

II. Portugal recognizes the present Chiefs, and will confirm all those that in future may be elected by the people according to their laws and customs, assuring them assistance and protection.

lII. Portugal obliges herself to maintain the integrity of the territories placed under its Protectorate.

IV. To the Chiefs of the land and their inhabitants will be maintained the direct ownership of the lands belonging to them, with the right of selling or alienating them in any manner whatever, to establish trading factories, or any private undertaking, on paying the customary fees, and marking clearly and exactly the lands transferred or ceded, to avoid future difficulties; these contracts to be ratified by the Commanders of the Portuguese ships of war.

V. The greatest liberty will be conceded to all merchants of every nationality to settle on these lands, the Portuguese Government holding itself obliged to protect these establishments, retaining, however, the right of proceeding as it may think proper whenever it may be proved that any attempt is made to overthrow the dominion of Portugal.

Angola_Burial of a king view of the Cabinda mountain 1786-87
Burial of King Andris Poncouta, Macaye, and view of the Cabinda mountain 1786-87

VI. The Princes and other native Chiefs bind themselves not to make any Treaties, nor to give up any lands to the Representatives of foreign nations in an official capacity, and not with the object mentioned in Article IV.

VII. They likewise bind themselves to protect the commerce of the Portuguese as well as that of the foreigners and of the natives, prohibiting all interruptions in the intercourse with the interior, using their authority to keep open the roads, assisting and protecting the relations between buyers and sellers, religious and scientific Missions that may be temporarily or permanently established on their lands, as well as the development of agriculture.

§. They bind themselves further to prohibit the Traffic in Slaves within the boundary of their dominions.

VIII. Any difficulty arising between Europeans and natives will be settled in the presence of the Commander of the Portuguese ship of war, who on such occasions may be in possible communication with the shore.

IX. Portugal will respect and will cause to be respected the usages and customs of the country.

X. The Princes and Chiefs cede and transfer to Portugal the entire right and title to portions of land in Landana, Chinchôcho, and Massabe, which will be marked conjointly with the Chiefs of those districts duly authorized by the Princes to give possession. The Deed of Possession will be drawn up in duplicate, one of which will remain in the hands of the Portuguese Delegate, and the other with the native Chief.

XI. The present Treaty, signed by the Princes and Chiefs of the country, as also by the Lieutenant-Captain Commander of the corvette Rainha de Portugal, will take effect from the day of its signature. It cannot, however, be considered definite until it be approved by the Government of His Majesty the King of Portugal.

Chinfuma, at Landana, September 29, 1883.


Commander of the corvette Rainha de Portugal.

Their marks

Congo_Stanley map
Map of Congo by Henry Stanley, with parts of Cabinda and Congo in red: Landana, Chiloango, Massabe, the kingdoms of Kacongo and Malemba, can all clearly be seen on this map

x    TALI-E-TALI, Regent of the Kingdom of Kacongo.

x     MAMBUCO, Vice-King of Kacongo.

x     A. THIABA DA COSTA, Representative of Queen Samano.

x     MANCOCHE, Regent of Encoche Luango.

x     MACHELLA, Chief of Chella.

x     MALUANGO, Chief of Ponta do Chiloango.

x     MAMBUCO, Chief of Chinchôcho.

x     MAMGOVE-MAMBO, ditto.

x     MATENDA, Chief of Ponta de Landana.

x     MARUMBA, Chief of Landana and Molembo.

x     MANCOCHE DE MUBA, ditto.

x     MANCUNGO, ditto.

x     MICHELLA, Chief of Molembo.

x     MAMBANGA, Chief of Landana and Molembo.

x     BINDUCO, ditto.

x     CAPITA, ditto.

x     MANGOVE FERNANDES, Chief of Molembo.

x     MASSAÇA-MANIFUTA, Chief of Kacongo.

x     MATANGA, of Luvula.

Angola_Loango 1668
The city of Loango in 1668

x     MAFUCA, of Landana.

x     MALAMBO, ditto.

x     MAFUCA-BABA, of Molembo.

x     MANIMBANZA, of Chilunga.

x     GANGA CHINFUMA, of Landana.

x     GANGA BEMBO, ditto.

x     MALENDA, of Boica.

x     CAPITA MANITATE, of Kacongo.

x     CAPITA MAMBUCO, of Molembo.

x     MANGOVE, of Ombuco.

x     MANGOVE, of Tenda.

x     MANGOVE, of Muba.

x     CAPITA, ditto.

x     MASSANDE, ditto.

x     LINGUESTER, of Tenda.

x     MANIMBACHE, Prince of Kacongo.

x     GANGA MECHEMECHAMA, of Kacongo.

x     GANGA DE CHINFUMA, of Molembo.

x     GANGA MAFULA, of Kacongo.

x     CAPITA MANIMACUNGO, of Molembo.

x     GANGA E LUNGA, of Kacongo.

Angola_Loango girl
A girl from Loango

x     MENTATA DO LUVULLA, of Ponta de Landana.

x      BUNDO, of Tenda.

x      MAMPAGALA, ditto.

x      MATENDA-PEÇA, ditto.

x      BOMANGOVE, ditto.

x      MANCACA, ditto.

x      MANSANGE, Prince of Massabe.

x      MAUNVULE, ditto.

x      MABICHETE, ditto.

x      PINDO, ditto.

x      MATICIBALA, ditto.

x      GANGA BONO, ditto.

x      MANUELA, ditto.

x      MASSUCO, ditto.


x      GANGA MUCULO, of Encoche Loango.

x      UMBINDUCO, ditto.

x      MASSI MONGO, ditto.

x      BANCHE LUANDA, ditto.

x      MANCACA, ditto.

Logo of the province of Cabinda, in Angola

x      MANGOVE BEMBO DA COSTA, of Tenda.

x      MEIMECASSO, ditto.

x      MANGOVE MAZUNGA, of Molembo.

x      ANTONIO PITRA, ditto.

Witnesses :


Merchant in Landana.



Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s