Portuguese Colonial Treaties in Africa: The Treaty of Chicamba on 26 Dec 1884

Map of the province of Cabinda: is the city of Chicamba the same as the one where this treaty was signed?

Here is another treaty of Portugal signed in Cabinda, Angola, this time in Chicamba which is near the border with the modern-day Republic of the Congo. Now at the time, this area was much bigger as delineated in the text. This treaty was signed on the 26th of December 1884 in Chicambo. I am not sure if the name ‘Treaty of Chicamba‘ is not just a ‘typo’ from a Portuguese person from that era, and that maybe it should have been ‘Treaty of Chicambo‘ instead, since the treaty clearly states that it was signed in Chicambo? The original version in Portuguese can be found here: Tratado de Chicamba 26 Dec 1884. The website Cabinda.net has even more treaties signed by Portugal in Cabinda. Note that this treaty did not make Cabinda a Portuguese protectorate yet; The Treaty of Simulambuco signed the following February is the one which officially made Cabinda a Portuguese protectorate. On the map to the left, is the city of Chicamba the same as the one where the treaty was signed in 1884? is the lake Massabi (Lago Massabi) the one referred to in this treaty as Massabe? Is the Luema River referred to in the text, the same as the Loémé River in the modern-day Republic of the Congo?


Flag for the province of Cabinda

On the 26th day of December of the year of the birth of Our Lord Jesus Christ of 1884, in Chicambo, the left bank of the Luema River, 30 miles or so from Massabe, meeting as representatives of the government Portuguese, the delegate of the same government in Kakongo and Massabe, José Emilio dos Santos Silva and the captain of 2. ‘ António Thiaba da Costa, head of the civilization station in Kakongo and Massabe, and the secretary of the civilization station in Kakongo and Massabe, José António da Conceição, and by the Peoples that extend along the left bank of the Luema River from N’Cula.

To the embouchure extending a little more than 60 miles, spanning N’Geba, Chicambo and Buamongo, the Princes and Gentlemen who presently govern them, who by all present were recognized as their own, was by the delegate of the declared government: That these Princes and Gentlemen, Governors of these territories, had manifested their desire to be included in the Protectorate which Portugal had established in Kakongo and Massabe, under its sovereignty, since it was the Nation with which they maintained more constant relations, both commercial and of habits and language, since the Europeans had trod on land from Africa to the south of Ecuador, he delegated as a representative of the Portuguese government, was authorized to grant to the natives the requested annexation, making a treaty that, once approved and signed, established the Relations between Portugal and the countries governed by the Heads that signed it.

Angola_Loango 1668
The city of Loango in 1668 (between Cabinda and the Republic of Congo)

And having the Princes and more Gentlemen formally declared that they wished to sign a document by which the Protectorate and sovereignty of Portugal on all the territories of the Massabe to the left bank of the river Luema were authenticated, were authenticated and approved twelve articles of ‘A treaty which, after being explained in good and due form, both in Portuguese and in the language of the country, was signed by all (with a sign of the cross because they could not write).

And, in order to be authenticated in the future, the resolutions adopted at this solemn meeting were drawn up and signed by all those who signed the treaty, from whom they obtained duly certified copies and delivered to Princes Machamba, Governor of Buamongo, Mai-Sexo, Governor of Guamon-o, N’Ganza-Camba, Governor of Chicambo, Mangemba, Governor of N’Geba, Mancuta, Governor of N’Cula, who also received the Portuguese flag to have them hoist in their villages and in places that conveniently Then designate, in order to conserve and defend it as a representative symbol of the sovereignty and Protectorate of Portugal.

Chicambo, December 26, 1884:

  • Angola_Burial of a king view of the Cabinda mountain 1786-87
    Burial of King Andris Poncouta, Macaye, and view of the Cabinda mountain 1786-87

    José Emílio dos Santos Silva, delegate of the Portuguese government

  • A. Thiaba da Costa, Captain of 2. ‘ line.
  • José António da Conceição, Secretary of the civilizing station
  • Signal of King Machimba.
  • Signal of Cutoto.
  • Signal de Massanza.
  • Signal of Bolamba.
  • Signal of Gangacaca.
  • Signal of the King Mai-Sex.
  • Signal of Pita da Praia.
  • Signal of Bivumbi.
  • Signal of Mambuco Mani Luemba.
  • Signal of the Macai King.
  • Signal de Chibilongo.
  • Signal of Mamboma N’Cusso.
  • Signal of Macacata.
  • Signal of Manganda-Cai.
  • Signal of King Ganga-Misi.
  • Signal of Culombo.
  • Signal of Machichita.
  • Signal of the King Mangalola.
  • Signal of Ganga Camba Bona.
  • Signal of Mafuca N’Gali.
  • Signal of Machanzi-Monzo.
  • Signal of Prince Muene Tati
  • Signal of Luangili.
  • Signal of Command.
  • Signal of Mafuca Macosse.
  • Signal of Machienzi Zuela.
  • Signal of Mafuca Naungi.
  • Signal of Mamboma Issambo.
  • Angola_Cabinda_2
    Map of Angola with the province of Cabinda

    Signal of N’Bundo Pubo.

  • Signal Mafuca N’Goma.
  • Signal of N’Coti Cuanda Poáti.
  • Signal of Calumbo.
  • Signal of Massongo.
  • Signal de Mamando.
  • Signal de Mansalisi Chibaza.
  • Signal of Chimbi Chianga.
  • Signal of Maconde Bitumbo.
  • Signal of Cibanza.
  • Signal of Lingster Pandi Numtoto-Ola.
  • Signal Michienzi Buanga.
  • Signal of Mafuca Mavingo.
  • Signal of Mambuco M’Paca.
  • Signal of Mafuca Pambo.
  • Signal of Chibuqueli Muene Pambo.
  • Signal by Muene Banza Pambo.
  • Signal of Mangofo Panzo.
  • Signal of Muene N’Zau.
  • Signal by Lingster Filipe.
  • Signal of Mafuca N’Buia.
  • Signal de Massavi N-Cambo.
  • Signal of Mafuca Chiluemba.
  • Signal of Ganga N’Zomongo.
  • Signal of N-Combe.
  • Sign of Mambuco Mani-Macambo.
  • Signal of Chibuquila Mani-Muto.
  • Signal by Macaia Chintomo.
  • Signal of Mamona Chibua.
  • Signal of Ganga Luti.
  • Signal of Benze Mongofo N’Poáti.
  • Signal of Bungo Michivata.
  • Signal of Mamboma N’Bungo.
  • Signal of Ganga Lamongo.

José Emilio dos Santos Silva, second lieutenant of West Africa, delegate of the Portuguese government and head of the civilizing station in Cacongo and Massabe, concludes with Princes Malhambo, Mai-Sexo, Ganga, Camba, Mangeba and Mancala, Governors and Regents of the Peoples of Buamongo , Guamongo, Chicambo, N’Geba and N’Cula, as well as the most Chiefs of the territories that of the Massabe extend to the N’Culo, the NE of Massabe, West Coast of Africa, the following treaty … Note: The treaty is textually the same as that of Chinfuma plus one more article.

As follows: “Article 12.- Any treaties shall be declared null and void, which contain clauses and, contrary to previous articles (Cfr. João de Matos e Silva, Contribuição para o Estudo da Região de Cabinda, cit., pp. 146-147).

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