Posted by: Dr. Y. | December 13, 2017

Proverbe sur la Sagesse / Proverb on Wisdom


Pirogues de Pecheurs a Dakar, Senegal / Fishermen’s boats in Dakar, Senegal

C’est en voyage qu’on trouve la sagesse (Proverbe Bantou).

It is on a journey that wisdom is found (Bantu proverb).

Posted by: Dr. Y. | December 11, 2017

‘Thiaroye Massacre’ by Ousmane Sembene

The great Senegalese filmmaker Ousmane Sembene made a movie about the Thiaroye massacre committed by French forces in Senegal during the night of 30 November – 1 December 1944! The movie, Camp de Thiaroye, was made in 1988. It took almost 20 years for a French president, Francois Hollande in 2012, to acknowledge it. A massacre which occurred because the Tirailleurs Senegalais asked to be given the pay they had been promised for services rendered, defending France in France against Hitler’s Nazi forces. Those Senegalese men were killed by French men for asking to be paid after defending France with their lives!

Posted by: Dr. Y. | December 8, 2017

Thiaroye: A French Massacre in Senegal

I just learned of the story of the Thiaroye massacre by French forces on African troops which occurred during the night of 30 November to 1 December 1944. African soldiers who had fought alongside French people to liberate France of the Nazi menace, were shot by Frenchmen, for asking for their pay! Can you believe it! They were promised a pay, they fought for France in France to liberate France, and when they got back to Senegal they were not paid; so they asked for their pay, and they were shot! Even the French president François Hollande in October 2012 had to acknowledge this atrocity… of course, he just acknowledged it, and never apologized! As you can see, France has committed some of the greatest atrocities in this world, but no one says a word, well because it is against Africans, so ‘it does not count’? Even today, they continue, with the FCFA, impoverishing and living off of Africans’ sweat! The great Senegalese filmmaker Ousmane Sembene made a movie about it!

Posted by: Dr. Y. | December 6, 2017

Libya and Slavery: Sheep without a Shepherd


Slave capture

For several weeks now, we have seen many people scream loud about the enslavement of Black people in Libya. I have seen Claudy Siar, whom I love, stand up outraged about the treatment of Black people in Libya, yet, I did not see him outraged when Libya was being bombed by NATO; I did not see him this outraged when migrants drowned in the Mediterranean Sea; I have not seen him outraged because MartiniqueGuadeloupe (where his family is from), and French Guiana, have been deprived of independence and are still Overseas territories of France today. I saw Samuel Eto’o and other footballers come out outraged, yet… I never saw Eto’o outraged that there are no roads to go to his village in Cameroon, I never saw him outraged that international companies exploit huge plantations in Cameroon without paying taxes (was he outraged when Lapiro de Mbanga was imprisoned for asking those companies to pay some little taxes?). I never saw these big footballers outraged that African youths are unemployed largely due to their presidents working hand-in-hand with European interests. Faure Gnassingbé, president of Togo even raised his voice against the enslavement of Africans in Libya, and was outraged! Are you serious, when he inherited the throne, presidency of Togo, after 38 years of Gnassingbé Eyadéma, his father’s reign? Alpha Blondy never said a word when Côte d’Ivoire was being bombed by France in 2011, yet today he opens his mouth for Libya, and wants the migrants to take up arms! Seriously?

Libya, the Prey of the West

Libya, the Prey of the West

I do not understand why we always act like sheep without a shepherd! Back in the middle of the 2000s, we were served with the genocide in Darfur, when Hollywood stars such as George Clooney came out in numbers claiming to care about the plight of the Black man, and saying that the Black people of Darfur Sudan were enslaved by their lighter skinned Sudanese brothers. This led to the creation of South Sudan, and Darfur, well… nothing happened in Darfur… so it had all been a scheme to split Sudan into 2, and take away its rich southern oil fields from the nation itself!

Children begging

Children begging

Do you think that African youths, if they had jobs in their countries, will not stay home? Do you think that if the FCFA was not this tax imposed on African countries (The 11 Components of the French Colonial Tax in Africa), they will not be developed? This outrage I hear should not be taken out on Libyans who had no say when their country was bombed by the Coalition that is NATO, but rather against our presidents who continue to stay in the FCFA zone (FCFA: France’s Colonial Tax on Africa), who continue to give at least 50% of our economies to France! France gets $500 Billions every year from 14 countries in Africa just from the currency, plus of course the free uranium of Niger, the free gold of Mali, the free plantations of Cameroon, the free cocoa of Côte d’Ivoire, etc. This has to stop! Our outrage cannot be taken out on Libyans, but rather on NATO, and now more than ever on those puppets that we call our presidents, who serve the interests of the Hexagon. Get out of the FCFA zone, and create jobs! Stop importing pencils, pens, and food, when you can grow and make your own and become sustainable economies to serve your youths! Africa is the continent with the youngest population, and with so many resources, and thus so much to develop! Africa is the future!

500 Fcfa_BEAO

500 Fcfa_BEAO

Yesterday, I heard a talk by Robert Bourgi who was the adviser to so many African presidents, good servants of Imperialist forces: MobutuOmar Bongo, etc; and he said that, what Africans were asking for was governmental alternance, i.e. election of new presidents. NO, we do not need new presidents who are just puppets of the West like Macky Sall or Alassane Ouattara who will sign off our future to the IMF and World Bank. We need a definite change, we want to be in charge of our economic destiny; we want to have our own currency, we do not want to pay a colonial tax when our forefathers died in WWI and WWII to liberate the French and the whole of Europe, when our ancestors were taken into slavery by Europeans to the Americas where their sweat was used to build Western economies. We want economic freedom to decide on our own terms whether we live or die. We will rather be poor with our own currency, than be a happy slave with a fake currency pegged to the Bank of Paris, which used to take 85% of our revenues and now takes 50%. All the same, We have had enough! So our outrage should not be at our Libyan brothers, because we do know that our true Libyan brothers will never do that, Khadafi fought for us Africans to be free from imperialist forces, but to our presidents, to our elites, who refuse to free us, who refuse to stand up and seize the moment! We, the people, want freedom, economic freedom! No More FCFA!

Posted by: Dr. Y. | December 4, 2017

Amilcar Cabral on Racism

Amilcar Cabral

Amilcar Cabral

We are not racists. We are fundamentally and deeply against any kind of racism. Even when people are subjected to racism we are against racism from those who have been oppressed by it. In our opinion – not from dreaming but from a deep analysis of the real condition of the existence of mankind and the division of societies – racism is a result of certain circumstances. It is not eternal in any latitude in the world. It is the result of historical and economic conditions. And we cannot answer racism with racism. It is not possible. In our country, despite some racist manifestations by the Portuguese, we are not fighting against the Portuguese people or whites. We are fighting for the freedom of our people – to free our people and to allow them to be able to love any kind of human being. You cannot love when you are a slave… In combating racism we don’t make progress if we combat the people themselves. We have to combat the causes of racism. If a bandit comes into my house and I have a gun I cannot shoot the shadow of this bandit. I have to shoot the bandit. Many people lose energy and effort, and make sacrifices combating shadows.”

Amilcar Cabral, 20 October 1972, New York, Pambazuka

Posted by: Dr. Y. | November 29, 2017

Robert Mugabe and Zimbabwe, a Short Biography

Flag of Zimbabwe

Flag of Zimbabwe

Here is a documentary about Robert Mugabe and his history, his life, and his leadership. This video talks about him, the fight for independence, the loss of his first son while imprisoned by the British in Rhodesia, and the renaming of the country from Rhodesia to Zimbabwe, after the Great Zimbabwe  Empire. I only recently found out that Mugabe had been influenced by Kwame Nkrumah: African Visionary and Ghana’s First President. He had lived and trained at the Takoradi Teacher Training College in Ghana, where he met his first wife Sally Hayfron Mugabe. It is sort of a short biography.

Posted by: Dr. Y. | November 27, 2017

You Shall Rise Again

Angelique Kidjo2

Angelique Kidjo (Source: World Music Central)

“It doesn’t matter what challenge you face, the most important thing is, when you fall, how you rise and how high you want to go, where you want to go from that, rise on.” Angélique Kidjo



Posted by: Dr. Y. | November 24, 2017

Old Clothes, a Kikongo Tale


Illustration from ‘Mataya, Les Vieux Vetements’,

There once was a woman who loved to keep her old clothes while sometimes buying new ones which she never wore because she preferred the old ones.

One day, she received the news of her mother’s passing. To attend the funerals, she decided to change her look. She wore new clothes, and took great care of herself, and carefully folded the old ones away.

When she started to go to the funerals, the old clothes thought and said: “We have always been together. Now, for your mother’s funerals, you want to leave us behind? No. We will follow you.”

When she stepped out, the clothes followed her and started to sing: “You did not leave us before, but today, you leave your old clothes at home; we will follow you to your mother’s funerals (2 bis).”

Congo_bust of a Kongo girl ca 1910

Bust from a Kongo woman, ca 1910

The lady walked, walked, walked, and once at her mother’s funerals, she entered. The people did not like what they saw and said: “You are very elegant, but what is that bunch of clothes doing here?”

But those who knew her said: “No. She dressed this way and the old clothes followed her because she never used to wear new clothes. She always dressed in old clothes. She never changed because she did not like new clothes.”

Ashamed to hear this, the lady decided to change. She stopped wearing, exclusively old clothes, and started to vary, wearing sometimes old, sometimes new clothes.

Morale: Attachment to old habits leads to spiritual and material poverty.

This is a Kikongo tale from the Uíge province of Angola. The original in Kikongo, as well as the first image, can be found on CONTAFRICA. The English translation is by Dr. Y.,


Map of Cabinda

Here is another treaty which led to the Treaty of Simulambuco between Portugal and the people of Cabinda, namely the Treaty of Chinfuma. This one was signed on the hill of Chinfuma, at Lândana, on 29 September 1883, between Guilherme Augusto de Brito Capelo and the local Princes.  The original in Portuguese can be found here: Angola, Cabinda, Tratado de Chinfuma. The river Chiloango referred to in the treaty can be seen on the attached map, as well as the city of Cacongo. Again, the website, has a lot of these treaties.


On the 29th day of the month of September, in the year of Our Lord 1883, on the hill of Chinfuma, at Lândana, on the western coast of Africa, were present on one side, for the Portuguese Government, the Lieutenant-Captain of the Navy, Guilherme Augusto de Brito Capelo, commanding the corvette Rainha de Portugal, and on the other side, for the people inhabiting both banks of the River Kacongo, the Princes and other Notables, now Chiefs and Governors of said people and tribes, who by all present were recognized as the true and identical parties, together with the Portuguese and foreign merchants owning commercial houses at Landana, Chiloango, and on the banks of said river, who volunteered to be present at this meeting as witnesses to all that may be enacted in the premises; being also present Robert F. Hammick, Commander of the English gun-boat Flirt, and the agent of the house Hatton and Cookson, R. E. Dennet; the above mentioned Commander (of the Portuguese corvette) declared that as several Chiefs had expressed the wish of demanding the protection of Portugal, under whose sovereignty they wanted to remain, as being the nation with whom they maintained the most intercourse commercially, as well as in customs and language, ever since Europeans have trod African soil south of the Equator, he, the Commander, now came fully empowered by the Government of His Majesty the King of Portugal to frame a Treaty, which, after being ratified and signed by both Contracting Parties, should establish the future intercourse between Portugal and the countries governed by the subscribing Chiefs. And the Princes and other Notables having formally declared that they wanted to make good, with their signatures, a document by which the Protectorate and sovereignty of Portugal should be clearly authenticated over all the territory lying between the River Massabe (Luiza Loango on the English maps) and the Molembo, 11 Articles were discussed and adopted in a Treaty which, after having been read and duly explained both in Portuguese as well as in the language of the country, was signed by all parties with the sign of a cross, not knowing how to write. And in order that the measures adopted in this solemn meeting might in future be duly authenticated, this statement was made and signed by all parties and attached to the Treaty, which was copied and duly certified and sealed with the seal used on all official documents of the corvette Rainha de Portugal, and copies given to the chief Princes, Tali-e-Tali, Prince Regent of the Kingdom of Kacongo; Mancoche, King of Encoche Luango; Antonio Thiaba da Costa, Regent of the Kingdom of Cinchôcho, representing the Queen of Samano; Mangoal, Prince Regent of Mambuco Manipolo; Antonio Thiaba da Costa, Governor of Massabe, representative of the Chiefs of that place; who also received the Portuguese flag to be hoisted at their Settlements and on the lands that may be ceded to the Portuguese Government, to be kept and defended as the symbol representing the sovereignty and Protectorate of Portugal over the lands governed by them.

Heights of Chinfuma, September 29, 1883.


Commander of the corvette Rainha de Portugal.

Their marks




x      MAMBUCO.



1st Lieutenant in the Navy.


2nd Lieutenant in the Navy.

ACHILLE DE ALMEIDA NAVARRO, Naval Doctor of the 1st Class.


Merchant in Landana.


PEDRO BERGNO, Marine Guard.


ANTONIO NUÑES SERRA E MOURA, Officer of Fazenda in the Navy.


Angola_Royal court of N'Gangue M'voumbe Niambi in Loango ca 1668

Royal court of N’Gangue M’voumbe Niambi in Loango ca 1668

Guilherme Augusto do Brito Capello, Lieutenant-Captain of the Navy, Knight Commander of the Order of Aviz, and Knight of various Orders, Commander of the corvette Rainha do Portugal, commissioned by the Government of His Majesty the King of Portugal, has concluded with the Princes Tali-e-Tali, Regent of the Kingdom of Kacongo; Mancoche, King of Encoche Luango; Antonio Thiaba da Costa, Regent of the Kingdom of Chinchôcho, Representative of the Queen Samano; and Mangoal, Regent of Mambuco, and their successors; as well as the other Chiefs of the hind lying between the Rivers Massabe and Molembe, on the Westem Coast of Africa, the following Treaty:—

Art. I. The Princes and other Chiefs of the country, and their successors, do voluntarily acknowledge the sovereignty of Portugal, and place under the Protectorate of that Government all the lands governed by them.

II. Portugal recognizes the present Chiefs, and will confirm all those that in future may be elected by the people according to their laws and customs, assuring them assistance and protection.

lII. Portugal obliges herself to maintain the integrity of the territories placed under its Protectorate.

IV. To the Chiefs of the land and their inhabitants will be maintained the direct ownership of the lands belonging to them, with the right of selling or alienating them in any manner whatever, to establish trading factories, or any private undertaking, on paying the customary fees, and marking clearly and exactly the lands transferred or ceded, to avoid future difficulties; these contracts to be ratified by the Commanders of the Portuguese ships of war.

V. The greatest liberty will be conceded to all merchants of every nationality to settle on these lands, the Portuguese Government holding itself obliged to protect these establishments, retaining, however, the right of proceeding as it may think proper whenever it may be proved that any attempt is made to overthrow the dominion of Portugal.

Angola_Burial of a king view of the Cabinda mountain 1786-87

Burial of King Andris Poncouta, Macaye, and view of the Cabinda mountain 1786-87

VI. The Princes and other native Chiefs bind themselves not to make any Treaties, nor to give up any lands to the Representatives of foreign nations in an official capacity, and not with the object mentioned in Article IV.

VII. They likewise bind themselves to protect the commerce of the Portuguese as well as that of the foreigners and of the natives, prohibiting all interruptions in the intercourse with the interior, using their authority to keep open the roads, assisting and protecting the relations between buyers and sellers, religious and scientific Missions that may be temporarily or permanently established on their lands, as well as the development of agriculture.

§. They bind themselves further to prohibit the Traffic in Slaves within the boundary of their dominions.

VIII. Any difficulty arising between Europeans and natives will be settled in the presence of the Commander of the Portuguese ship of war, who on such occasions may be in possible communication with the shore.

IX. Portugal will respect and will cause to be respected the usages and customs of the country.

X. The Princes and Chiefs cede and transfer to Portugal the entire right and title to portions of land in Landana, Chinchôcho, and Massabe, which will be marked conjointly with the Chiefs of those districts duly authorized by the Princes to give possession. The Deed of Possession will be drawn up in duplicate, one of which will remain in the hands of the Portuguese Delegate, and the other with the native Chief.

XI. The present Treaty, signed by the Princes and Chiefs of the country, as also by the Lieutenant-Captain Commander of the corvette Rainha de Portugal, will take effect from the day of its signature. It cannot, however, be considered definite until it be approved by the Government of His Majesty the King of Portugal.

Chinfuma, at Landana, September 29, 1883.


Commander of the corvette Rainha de Portugal.

Their marks

Congo_Stanley map

Map of Congo by Henry Stanley, with parts of Cabinda and Congo in red: Landana, Chiloango, Massabe, the kingdoms of Kacongo and Malemba, can all clearly be seen on this map

x    TALI-E-TALI, Regent of the Kingdom of Kacongo.

x     MAMBUCO, Vice-King of Kacongo.

x     A. THIABA DA COSTA, Representative of Queen Samano.

x     MANCOCHE, Regent of Encoche Luango.

x     MACHELLA, Chief of Chella.

x     MALUANGO, Chief of Ponta do Chiloango.

x     MAMBUCO, Chief of Chinchôcho.

x     MAMGOVE-MAMBO, ditto.

x     MATENDA, Chief of Ponta de Landana.

x     MARUMBA, Chief of Landana and Molembo.

x     MANCOCHE DE MUBA, ditto.

x     MANCUNGO, ditto.

x     MICHELLA, Chief of Molembo.

x     MAMBANGA, Chief of Landana and Molembo.

x     BINDUCO, ditto.

x     CAPITA, ditto.

x     MANGOVE FERNANDES, Chief of Molembo.

x     MASSAÇA-MANIFUTA, Chief of Kacongo.

x     MATANGA, of Luvula.

Angola_Loango 1668

The city of Loango in 1668

x     MAFUCA, of Landana.

x     MALAMBO, ditto.

x     MAFUCA-BABA, of Molembo.

x     MANIMBANZA, of Chilunga.

x     GANGA CHINFUMA, of Landana.

x     GANGA BEMBO, ditto.

x     MALENDA, of Boica.

x     CAPITA MANITATE, of Kacongo.

x     CAPITA MAMBUCO, of Molembo.

x     MANGOVE, of Ombuco.

x     MANGOVE, of Tenda.

x     MANGOVE, of Muba.

x     CAPITA, ditto.

x     MASSANDE, ditto.

x     LINGUESTER, of Tenda.

x     MANIMBACHE, Prince of Kacongo.

x     GANGA MECHEMECHAMA, of Kacongo.

x     GANGA DE CHINFUMA, of Molembo.

x     GANGA MAFULA, of Kacongo.

x     CAPITA MANIMACUNGO, of Molembo.

x     GANGA E LUNGA, of Kacongo.

Angola_Loango girl

A girl from Loango

x     MENTATA DO LUVULLA, of Ponta de Landana.

x      BUNDO, of Tenda.

x      MAMPAGALA, ditto.

x      MATENDA-PEÇA, ditto.

x      BOMANGOVE, ditto.

x      MANCACA, ditto.

x      MANSANGE, Prince of Massabe.

x      MAUNVULE, ditto.

x      MABICHETE, ditto.

x      PINDO, ditto.

x      MATICIBALA, ditto.

x      GANGA BONO, ditto.

x      MANUELA, ditto.

x      MASSUCO, ditto.


x      GANGA MUCULO, of Encoche Loango.

x      UMBINDUCO, ditto.

x      MASSI MONGO, ditto.

x      BANCHE LUANDA, ditto.

x      MANCACA, ditto.


Logo of the province of Cabinda, in Angola

x      MANGOVE BEMBO DA COSTA, of Tenda.

x      MEIMECASSO, ditto.

x      MANGOVE MAZUNGA, of Molembo.

x      ANTONIO PITRA, ditto.

Witnesses :


Merchant in Landana.




Map of the province of Cabinda: is the city of Chicamba the same as the one where this treaty was signed?

Here is another treaty of Portugal signed in Cabinda, Angola, this time in Chicamba which is near the border with the modern-day Republic of the Congo. Now at the time, this area was much bigger as delineated in the text. This treaty was signed on the 26th of December 1884 in Chicambo. I am not sure if the name ‘Treaty of Chicamba‘ is not just a ‘typo’ from a Portuguese person from that era, and that maybe it should have been ‘Treaty of Chicambo‘ instead, since the treaty clearly states that it was signed in Chicambo? The original version in Portuguese can be found here: Tratado de Chicamba 26 Dec 1884. The website has even more treaties signed by Portugal in Cabinda. Note that this treaty did not make Cabinda a Portuguese protectorate yet; The Treaty of Simulambuco signed the following February is the one which officially made Cabinda a Portuguese protectorate. On the map to the left, is the city of Chicamba the same as the one where the treaty was signed in 1884? is the lake Massabi (Lago Massabi) the one referred to in this treaty as Massabe? Is the Luema River referred to in the text, the same as the Loémé River in the modern-day Republic of the Congo?



Flag for the province of Cabinda

On the 26th day of December of the year of the birth of Our Lord Jesus Christ of 1884, in Chicambo, the left bank of the Luema River, 30 miles or so from Massabe, meeting as representatives of the government Portuguese, the delegate of the same government in Kakongo and Massabe, José Emilio dos Santos Silva and the captain of 2. ‘ António Thiaba da Costa, head of the civilization station in Kakongo and Massabe, and the secretary of the civilization station in Kakongo and Massabe, José António da Conceição, and by the Peoples that extend along the left bank of the Luema River from N’Cula.

To the embouchure extending a little more than 60 miles, spanning N’Geba, Chicambo and Buamongo, the Princes and Gentlemen who presently govern them, who by all present were recognized as their own, was by the delegate of the declared government: That these Princes and Gentlemen, Governors of these territories, had manifested their desire to be included in the Protectorate which Portugal had established in Kakongo and Massabe, under its sovereignty, since it was the Nation with which they maintained more constant relations, both commercial and of habits and language, since the Europeans had trod on land from Africa to the south of Ecuador, he delegated as a representative of the Portuguese government, was authorized to grant to the natives the requested annexation, making a treaty that, once approved and signed, established the Relations between Portugal and the countries governed by the Heads that signed it.

Angola_Loango 1668

The city of Loango in 1668 (between Cabinda and the Republic of Congo)

And having the Princes and more Gentlemen formally declared that they wished to sign a document by which the Protectorate and sovereignty of Portugal on all the territories of the Massabe to the left bank of the river Luema were authenticated, were authenticated and approved twelve articles of ‘A treaty which, after being explained in good and due form, both in Portuguese and in the language of the country, was signed by all (with a sign of the cross because they could not write).

And, in order to be authenticated in the future, the resolutions adopted at this solemn meeting were drawn up and signed by all those who signed the treaty, from whom they obtained duly certified copies and delivered to Princes Machamba, Governor of Buamongo, Mai-Sexo, Governor of Guamon-o, N’Ganza-Camba, Governor of Chicambo, Mangemba, Governor of N’Geba, Mancuta, Governor of N’Cula, who also received the Portuguese flag to have them hoist in their villages and in places that conveniently Then designate, in order to conserve and defend it as a representative symbol of the sovereignty and Protectorate of Portugal.

Chicambo, December 26, 1884:

  • Angola_Burial of a king view of the Cabinda mountain 1786-87

    Burial of King Andris Poncouta, Macaye, and view of the Cabinda mountain 1786-87

    José Emílio dos Santos Silva, delegate of the Portuguese government

  • A. Thiaba da Costa, Captain of 2. ‘ line.
  • José António da Conceição, Secretary of the civilizing station
  • Signal of King Machimba.
  • Signal of Cutoto.
  • Signal de Massanza.
  • Signal of Bolamba.
  • Signal of Gangacaca.
  • Signal of the King Mai-Sex.
  • Signal of Pita da Praia.
  • Signal of Bivumbi.
  • Signal of Mambuco Mani Luemba.
  • Signal of the Macai King.
  • Signal de Chibilongo.
  • Signal of Mamboma N’Cusso.
  • Signal of Macacata.
  • Signal of Manganda-Cai.
  • Signal of King Ganga-Misi.
  • Signal of Culombo.
  • Signal of Machichita.
  • Signal of the King Mangalola.
  • Signal of Ganga Camba Bona.
  • Signal of Mafuca N’Gali.
  • Signal of Machanzi-Monzo.
  • Signal of Prince Muene Tati
  • Signal of Luangili.
  • Signal of Command.
  • Signal of Mafuca Macosse.
  • Signal of Machienzi Zuela.
  • Signal of Mafuca Naungi.
  • Signal of Mamboma Issambo.
  • Angola_Cabinda_2

    Map of Angola with the province of Cabinda

    Signal of N’Bundo Pubo.

  • Signal Mafuca N’Goma.
  • Signal of N’Coti Cuanda Poáti.
  • Signal of Calumbo.
  • Signal of Massongo.
  • Signal de Mamando.
  • Signal de Mansalisi Chibaza.
  • Signal of Chimbi Chianga.
  • Signal of Maconde Bitumbo.
  • Signal of Cibanza.
  • Signal of Lingster Pandi Numtoto-Ola.
  • Signal Michienzi Buanga.
  • Signal of Mafuca Mavingo.
  • Signal of Mambuco M’Paca.
  • Signal of Mafuca Pambo.
  • Signal of Chibuqueli Muene Pambo.
  • Signal by Muene Banza Pambo.
  • Signal of Mangofo Panzo.
  • Signal of Muene N’Zau.
  • Signal by Lingster Filipe.
  • Signal of Mafuca N’Buia.
  • Signal de Massavi N-Cambo.
  • Signal of Mafuca Chiluemba.
  • Signal of Ganga N’Zomongo.
  • Signal of N-Combe.
  • Sign of Mambuco Mani-Macambo.
  • Signal of Chibuquila Mani-Muto.
  • Signal by Macaia Chintomo.
  • Signal of Mamona Chibua.
  • Signal of Ganga Luti.
  • Signal of Benze Mongofo N’Poáti.
  • Signal of Bungo Michivata.
  • Signal of Mamboma N’Bungo.
  • Signal of Ganga Lamongo.

José Emilio dos Santos Silva, second lieutenant of West Africa, delegate of the Portuguese government and head of the civilizing station in Cacongo and Massabe, concludes with Princes Malhambo, Mai-Sexo, Ganga, Camba, Mangeba and Mancala, Governors and Regents of the Peoples of Buamongo , Guamongo, Chicambo, N’Geba and N’Cula, as well as the most Chiefs of the territories that of the Massabe extend to the N’Culo, the NE of Massabe, West Coast of Africa, the following treaty … Note: The treaty is textually the same as that of Chinfuma plus one more article.

As follows: “Article 12.- Any treaties shall be declared null and void, which contain clauses and, contrary to previous articles (Cfr. João de Matos e Silva, Contribuição para o Estudo da Região de Cabinda, cit., pp. 146-147).

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